I did the math for #1.

x^2 + Y^2 = R^2
X= 22
R= 23.9

Solve for Y. Y is about 9.33
Then subtract that number from 14 and you have 4.66.

So, I'm pretty pleased with myself for figuring this out. I once spent days trying to figure out a question about a goat tied to a circular fence with no luck. Glad to finally get one I could handle.