It won't prevent super teams per se... but may really limit what they can put around them. Like you can still have multiple stars but you will be limited to just having minimum guys around them or retaining your own FA at a massive cost.
All it really means is like Milwaukee wouldn't be able to sign Joe Ingles... and Warriors couldn't sign Donte... and clips wouldn't have signed Wall... and that they will pay more in tax. The loss of cap exceptions and some of the trade stipulations will hurt a bit... the big thing is the money most likely... teams that far over the cap typically are pretty good so the draft penalty isn't much of anything (GS being able to tank when Steph got hurt being the exception).
The penalty is massive for teams like Brooklyn, Atlanta, Milwaukee now since they don't really have multiple stars but have a bunch of good players with big salaries... and now even if they wanted to pay the price they will have issues filling in the roster potentially.